Background: Neonatal malnutrition defined by birth weight (BW) is a risk factor for obesity and cardio - metabolic diseases in adults. Neonatal ponderal index (NPI) may have better diagnostic value than BW to establish nutritional status. Aim: To determine the effect of neonatal nutritional status, established by the three NPI curves available in Chile, on the risk of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) in obese school children. Material and methods: A nested case/control study in a sample of 410 obese school children aged 10 to 16 years (57% males) was performed. The dichotomous response variable was the presence of MS defined as International Diabetes Federation (IDF) or Cook’s criteria. The exposure variable was having NPI < percentile (p)10. Results: The frequency of MS was 36 and 39% according to the IDF and Cook criteria, respectively. The proportion of children with neonatal malnutrition exceeded 20%. A significantly increased risk for MS was only found when PNI was defined according to Lagos´s Table and MS was defined using IDF criteria. Having a PNI > p90, however, showed a trend towards a reduced risk of MS, which only reached significance using Lagos´s Table and Cook´s Criteria. Conclusions: Neonatal malnutrition defined by NPI is common in obese school children. The condition of neonatal under nutrition defined as PNI < p10 may be a risk factor for developing MS. Instead, having a NPI > p90 could be protective.
Fetal Development; Infant Nutrition Disorders; Metabolic Syndrome X