Endocarditis infecciosa: características clínicas, complicaciones y mortalidad en 506 pacientes y factores pronósticos de sobrevida a 10 años (1998 – 2008). Estudio colaborativo nacional en Endocarditis Infecciosa en Chile (ECNEI).
CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS, COMPLICATIONS AND MORTALITY IN 506 PATIENTS WITH INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS AND DETERMINANTS OF SURVIVAL RATE AT 10 YEARS
Background: Rates of morbidity and mortality in Infective Endocarditis (IE) remain high and prognosis in this disease is still difficult and uncertain. Aim: To study IE in Chile in its active phase during inpatient hospital stay and long term survival rates. Material and methods: Observational prospective national cohort study of 506 consecutive patients included between June 1, 1998 and July 31, 2008, from 37 Chilean hospitals (secondary and tertiary centers) nationwide. Results: The main findings were the presence of Rheumatic valve disease in 22.1% of patients, a history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) only in 0.7%, the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in 29.2% of blood cultures, negative blood cultures in 33.2%, heart failure in 51.7% and native valve involvement in 86% of patients. Echocardiographic diagnosis was achieved in 94% of patients. Hospital mortality was 26.1% and its prognostics factors were persisting infection (Odds ratio (OR) 6.43, Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45 – 28.33%), failure of medical treatment and no surgical intervention (OR 48.8; CI 6.67 – 349.9). Five and 10 years survival rates were 75.6 and 48.6%, respectively. The significant prognostic factors for long term mortality, determined by multivariate analysis were the presence of diabetes, Staphylococcus aureus infection, sepsis, heart failure, renal failure and lack of surgical treatment during the IE episode. Conclusions: The microbiologic diagnosis of IE must be urgently improved in Chile. Mortality rates are still high (26.1%) partly because of a high incidence of negative blood cultures and the need for more surgical valve interventions during in-hospital period. Long term prognostic factors for mortality should be identified early to improve outcome.