Perfil clínico y epidemiológico de los casos de tuberculosis atendidos en una red de salud universitaria en Santiago de Chile entre los años 200-2010.

Alvaro Morgado, Ruth Köhnenkampf, Pablo Navarrete, Patricia García, María Elvira Balcells



Background: The incidence and epidemiological profile of tuberculosis (TB) has changed significantly in the recent years in Chile. Aim: To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of TB cases diagnosed in the last decade at a university hospital in Santiago. Material and methods: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture registry of the microbiology laboratory was reviewed. Medical records of patients with a positive culture registered between 2000 and 2010 were retrieved and analyzed.  Results: Two hundred forty positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures were identified and the medical records of 158 of these patients were accessed for analysis. The median age was 53 years (range: 3 to 89), 55.1% were female and nearly 42% had extra-pulmonary TB.  Among known risk factors, 32.9% of patients were older than 65 years, 4.4% were health care workers and 3.9% immigrants. Twenty eight percent (41/145) had some type of immunosuppression at diagnosis: 11.7% HIV infection and 16.6% were using immunosuppressive drugs. In this group, a previous tuberculin skin test was done in only 5 cases (12.2%). Adverse events related to TB treatment were reported in 21.3% of cases (17/80). No cases of fulminant hepatitis or death from this cause were identified. Four of 92 patients that had a complete follow up during treatment, died. Two of these patients were receiving steroids. Conclusions: Almost one third of TB cases occurred among immunosuppressed patients and 42% were extra-pulmonary forms. The prevention of TB reactivation in this group should be strengthened. 

Palabras clave

Immunosuppression; Myocbacterium tuberculosis; Risk factors; Tuberculosis